[:it]Memento – Una storia d’amore[:]

[:it]Siamo stati testimoni di una storia incredibile che merita di rimbalzare di bocca in bocca perché rappresenta un aspetto molto importante e poco conosciuto dell’immigrazione: “MEMENTO – Siamo nomi non numeri” è per noi la chiusura di una vicenda che si è aperta tempo fa, e che adesso ha trovato una conclusione.

Francis, migrante sopravvissuto ad un naufragio del 25 maggio 2017, e che ora vive in un centro d’accoglienza nel Nord Italia, dopo molti mesi di ricerche, è riuscito a mettersi in contatto con HRYO Human Rights Youth Organization che, giusto qualche mese fa, aveva organizzato insieme a Maghweb l’incontro “Anatomia di un naufragio”, raccontando un aspetto sconosciuto ai più: cosa ne è dei corpi di chi non ce l’ha fatta durante la traversata per raggiungere l’Europa?

La moglie di Francis è morta lungo il viaggio verso l’Italia, il suo corpo è stato recuperato insieme ai superstiti da un’imbarcazione a cui per giorni è stato negato l’attracco a causa del G7 in corso proprio in quei stessi giorni Taormina. Subito dopo lo sbarco Francis non ha mai saputo più nulla del corpo della moglie. Ha chiesto aiuto ad HRYO per uscire da quel limbo che accomuna migliaia di migranti: ritrovare le spoglie dei propri familiari, elaborare definitivamente il lutto, chiudere il cerchio.

Siamo riusciti a trovare la tomba con il numero corrispondente all’identità della moglie. Si tratta in genere di fosse anonime, disseminate in varie parti della Sicilia, senza croce perché si sconosce la religione degli annegati. Su quella tomba abbiamo fissato un nome: Mary.

Francis ha avuto il permesso di raggiungere in treno Palermo (un viaggio di 20 ore, da Nord a Sud) per partecipare ad un piccolo “rito” allo Stato Brado, venerdì 25 maggio scorso, al quale ha preso parte la comunità nigeriana che risiede a Palermo e l’Associazione Donne Di Benin City Palermo: “MEMENTO” è stato un abbraccio, una celebrazione, un incontro, una festa, per raccontare la storia di un numero che torna, finalmente, ad essere nome.

Quando avviene uno sbarco, subito, i vivi vengono separati dai morti e di quest’ultimi in genere non si hanno più notizie: non è prevista una procedura per il riconoscimento dei cadaveri perché nessuno può attestare la veridicità delle dichiarazioni fatte da un migrante. Pensiamo che il problema dell’oblio dell’identità dei morti in un naufragio dovrebbe diventare argomento di discussione. Pensiamo che sia importantissimo battersi contro la normalizzazione della tragedia a cui ci siamo davvero abituati.

Abbiamo raccontato a quanti più giornali e radio possibili questa storia, non per ricercare una facile visibilità, ma per provare a contrastare, anche se solo per un attimo, quel processo di normalizzazione che non ci fa rendere conto che la storia di Francis potrebbe essere la storia di ciascuno di noi;

Rassegna Stampa:

[:]

[:it]Female genital mutilation[:en]Female genital mutilation[:]

[:it]Female genital mutilation

“With the dignity, health and well-being of millions of girls at stake, there is no time to waste. Together, we can and must end this harmful practice.” UN Secretary-General António Guterres

FGM refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genetilia or the injury to the female genetal organs for cultural or other non-medical reasons.

The prcatice of FGM is recognized internationally as a violation of human rights of girls and women, it’s a form of discrimination against women that directly shows the disproportionality  gender inequality. First of all it’s a violation of fundamental rights to be free from torture, violates women’s rights to health, security and physical integrity, and the most important the right to have a choice and chose for yourself, to live when this type of procedure of FGM results in death.

FGM was banned by law in a lot of countries with penalties range from minimum 6 months and sometimes to maximum life prison, some countries include monetary fines. While is deliberated as illegal, various society believe and consider the practice part of their cultural traditions. But living in now day’s culture is constantly changing and adapting to people needs, moreover cultural arguments can’t be used as an excuse of violence against humans, male or female.

The World Health Organization has classified four types of FGM:

  1. Clitoridectomy: partial or total removal of clitoris.
  2. Excision: the partial or total removal of clitoris and the labia minora.
  3. Infibulation: the narrowing of the vaginal opening trough the creation of a covering seal, by cutting and repositioning the labia minora, or labia majora.
  4. This includes all other harmful procedures to the female genetilia for no-medical purposes, incising, pricking, and cauterizing the genital area.

FGM increase the risks of health consequences directly and later in life, there is no health befits or justification from cutting or harm to the genitals of girls and women, it has to be unacceptable and inadmissible from a public health and human rights perspective.

Immediate difficulty, complexity includes: severe pain, fever, infections, excessive bleeding, urinary problems, and sometimes it can bring to death.

Long term and later in life importance and consequences: need for later surgeries, vaginal and urinary problems, sexual problems and all these issues followed by psychological problems (depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, anxiety, etc.).

This procedure mostly engage in risk young girls, it starts sometime from 3 months between infancy and adolescence, girls of14 and younger represent 44 million of those who have been cut, and rarely on adult women.  U.N says that more than 200 million girls and women alive today have been cut in 30 countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia where FGM is concentrated. From the past studies UNICEF hopes that with the support of governments, communities and religious leaders, practice will be widely abandoned by 2030.

In the last years the European Union and its Member States have taken steps towards the ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, which is the first legally binding treaty recognizing that FGM is a European issue.

There is a platform that galvanize European Institutions, policy makers, professionals dealing with FGM, NGO’s, affected communities, FGM survivors and funding partners to join our efforts for lasting change in Europe and beyond. The End FGM European Network is a European umbrella network of 19 organizations working to ensure sustainable European action to end female genital mutilation. http://www.endfgm.eu/

On 6th of February was established “International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation”http://www.un.org/en/events/femalegenitalmutilationday/, this day also falls under the ongoing Spotlight Initiative http://www.un.org/en/spotlight-initiative/ ,to eliminate violence against women and girls.

Eliminating Female Genital Mutilation is an interagency statement of: OHCHR, UNAIDS, UNADP, UNECA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, WHO.http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/csw52/statements_missions/Interagency_Statement_on_Eliminating_FGM.pdf

This Interagency Statement expresses the common commitment of these organizations to continue working towards the elimination FGM, progress has been achieved on a number of fronts: FGM is internationally recognized as a violation of human rights, policies and legislations to prohibit the practice have been put in many countries, and most importantly there are indications that the processes od social change leading to abandonments of the practice are under way in a number of countries.

The Sustainable Development goals in 2015 calls for an end to FGM by 2030 under Goal 5 on Gender Equality, to eliminate all harmful practices.[:en]Female genital mutilation

“With the dignity, health and well-being of millions of girls at stake, there is no time to waste. Together, we can and must end this harmful practice.” UN Secretary-General António Guterres

FGM refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genetilia or the injury to the female genetal organs for cultural or other non-medical reasons.

The prcatice of FGM is recognized internationally as a violation of human rights of girls and women, it’s a form of discrimination against women that directly shows the disproportionality  gender inequality. First of all it’s a violation of fundamental rights to be free from torture, violates women’s rights to health, security and physical integrity, and the most important the right to have a choice and chose for yourself, to live when this type of procedure of FGM results in death.

FGM was banned by law in a lot of countries with penalties range from minimum 6 months and sometimes to maximum life prison, some countries include monetary fines. While is deliberated as illegal, various society believe and consider the practice part of their cultural traditions. But living in now day’s culture is constantly changing and adapting to people needs, moreover cultural arguments can’t be used as an excuse of violence against humans, male or female.

The World Health Organization has classified four types of FGM:

  1. Clitoridectomy: partial or total removal of clitoris.
  2. Excision: the partial or total removal of clitoris and the labia minora.
  3. Infibulation: the narrowing of the vaginal opening trough the creation of a covering seal, by cutting and repositioning the labia minora, or labia majora.
  4. This includes all other harmful procedures to the female genetilia for no-medical purposes, incising, pricking, and cauterizing the genital area.

FGM increase the risks of health consequences directly and later in life, there is no health befits or justification from cutting or harm to the genitals of girls and women, it has to be unacceptable and inadmissible from a public health and human rights perspective.

Immediate difficulty, complexity includes: severe pain, fever, infections, excessive bleeding, urinary problems, and sometimes it can bring to death.

Long term and later in life importance and consequences: need for later surgeries, vaginal and urinary problems, sexual problems and all these issues followed by psychological problems (depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, anxiety, etc.).

This procedure mostly engage in risk young girls, it starts sometime from 3 months between infancy and adolescence, girls of14 and younger represent 44 million of those who have been cut, and rarely on adult women.  U.N says that more than 200 million girls and women alive today have been cut in 30 countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia where FGM is concentrated. From the past studies UNICEF hopes that with the support of governments, communities and religious leaders, practice will be widely abandoned by 2030.

In the last years the European Union and its Member States have taken steps towards the ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, which is the first legally binding treaty recognizing that FGM is a European issue.

There is a platform that galvanize European Institutions, policy makers, professionals dealing with FGM, NGO’s, affected communities, FGM survivors and funding partners to join our efforts for lasting change in Europe and beyond. The End FGM European Network is a European umbrella network of 19 organizations working to ensure sustainable European action to end female genital mutilation. http://www.endfgm.eu/

On 6th of February was established “International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation”http://www.un.org/en/events/femalegenitalmutilationday/, this day also falls under the ongoing Spotlight Initiative http://www.un.org/en/spotlight-initiative/ ,to eliminate violence against women and girls.

Eliminating Female Genital Mutilation is an interagency statement of: OHCHR, UNAIDS, UNADP, UNECA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, WHO.http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/csw52/statements_missions/Interagency_Statement_on_Eliminating_FGM.pdf

This Interagency Statement expresses the common commitment of these organizations to continue working towards the elimination FGM, progress has been achieved on a number of fronts: FGM is internationally recognized as a violation of human rights, policies and legislations to prohibit the practice have been put in many countries, and most importantly there are indications that the processes od social change leading to abandonments of the practice are under way in a number of countries.

The Sustainable Development goals in 2015 calls for an end to FGM by 2030 under Goal 5 on Gender Equality, to eliminate all harmful practices.[:]

[:it]Child Marriage [:en]Child Marriage [:]

[:it]We all live in a world where we are able to make our own choices and decisions for own interests. Choices define us and our personality and allow us to determine our potential in all life spheres. Discussing about child marriage girls are deprived of this chance that is a form of violence robbing the liberties and freedoms that all humans have. Now days worldwide a lot of girls suffer because of the child marriage, they are getting married being in their teens age some of the brides are holding their toys during the ceremony, afterwards they become pregnant while they are children’s themselves: “I don’t know how children are made. But they get pregnant… They carry it inside their stomach. Then they deliver and it comes out a baby.” Tehani married at 6 in Yemen.

Child marriage brings girls childhood and adolescence to a premature end imposing adult’s roles before the girls are emotionally prepared. Approximately 16 million teenage girls aged 15-19 are giving birth in developed countries. Preventing and avoiding child marriage will reduce pregnancy, maternal death or other disabilities.

Poverty is one of the biggest factors of the child marriage, persisting more in the rural parts of the countries. Sometimes it can be a part of tradition, usually parents making this decisions think that it can safeguard their daughters future.Consequences girls drop out of school. The best for the girls is education, good health and the choice to make decision not only regarding to marriage but in all aspects of life. The Program covers four regions: Eastern and South Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, and West and Central Africa. Saharan Africa still has some of the highest rates of the child marriage South Asia is home to the largest numbers of child brides.

United Nations moved to adopt the elimination of child marriage as part of its gender equality goal within the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal framework, under Target 5.3 on harmful practices. The wish to achieve these goals in mind, UNICEF and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) secured funding and support to put in place joint efforts to combat child marriage: the Global Programme to Accelerate Action to End Child Marriage, the first official year of which is reported on here (https://www.unicef.org/protection/57929_92681.html).  As a group collaborating together UNFPA produced a report named “Marrying too young. End child marriage”, by Population and Development Branch and Sexual and Reproductive Health Branch, (https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/MarryingTooYoung.pdf ).

In recent years child marriage has gained increasing prominence on international and national agendas. Now days there are an exclusive momentum to help in accelerating our efforts to help for the change the lives of young women. It requires work across all sectors and at all levels. Girls not Brides is a global partnership of more than 900 civil society organizations committed to ending child marriage and enabling girls to fulfill their potential. (https://www.girlsnotbrides.org/)

Child marriage affects girls in far greater numbers than boys, both women and men aged 18 years and older were married or in union before ages 15 and 18, according to UNICEF statistics 720 million women were married before age 15 comparing to 156 million of men married after age 15 but before age 18.

The highest rates of child marriage are found in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, that means that almost half of all child brides worldwide live in South Asia and 1in 3 are in India. The 10 countries with the highest rates of child marriage are downward: Nigeria, Bangladesh, Chod, Mali, Central African Republic, India, Guinea, Ethiopia , Burkina Faso, Nepal.(https://data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Child-Marriage-Brochure-HR_164.pdf )

Ending child marriage will help break the intergenerational cycle of poverty by allowing girls and women to participate more fully in society. Empowered and educated goals are better able to nourish and care for their children, leading to healthier, smaller families. When girls are allowed to be girls, everybody wins.[:en]We all live in a world where we are able to make our own choices and decisions for own interests. Choices define us and our personality and allow us to determine our potential in all life spheres. Discussing about child marriage girls are deprived of this chance that is a form of violence robbing the liberties and freedoms that all humans have. Now days worldwide a lot of girls suffer because of the child marriage, they are getting married being in their teens age some of the brides are holding their toys during the ceremony, afterwards they become pregnant while they are children’s themselves: “I don’t know how children are made. But they get pregnant… They carry it inside their stomach. Then they deliver and it comes out a baby.” Tehani married at 6 in Yemen.

Child marriage brings girls childhood and adolescence to a premature end imposing adult’s roles before the girls are emotionally prepared. Approximately 16 million teenage girls aged 15-19 are giving birth in developed countries. Preventing and avoiding child marriage will reduce pregnancy, maternal death or other disabilities.

Poverty is one of the biggest factors of the child marriage, persisting more in the rural parts of the countries. Sometimes it can be a part of tradition, usually parents making this decisions think that it can safeguard their daughters future.Consequences girls drop out of school. The best for the girls is education, good health and the choice to make decision not only regarding to marriage but in all aspects of life. The Program covers four regions: Eastern and South Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, and West and Central Africa. Saharan Africa still has some of the highest rates of the child marriage South Asia is home to the largest numbers of child brides.

United Nations moved to adopt the elimination of child marriage as part of its gender equality goal within the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal framework, under Target 5.3 on harmful practices. The wish to achieve these goals in mind, UNICEF and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) secured funding and support to put in place joint efforts to combat child marriage: the Global Programme to Accelerate Action to End Child Marriage, the first official year of which is reported on here (https://www.unicef.org/protection/57929_92681.html).  As a group collaborating together UNFPA produced a report named “Marrying too young. End child marriage”, by Population and Development Branch and Sexual and Reproductive Health Branch, (https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/MarryingTooYoung.pdf ).

In recent years child marriage has gained increasing prominence on international and national agendas. Now days there are an exclusive momentum to help in accelerating our efforts to help for the change the lives of young women. It requires work across all sectors and at all levels. Girls not Brides is a global partnership of more than 900 civil society organizations committed to ending child marriage and enabling girls to fulfill their potential. (https://www.girlsnotbrides.org/)

Child marriage affects girls in far greater numbers than boys, both women and men aged 18 years and older were married or in union before ages 15 and 18, according to UNICEF statistics 720 million women were married before age 15 comparing to 156 million of men married after age 15 but before age 18.

The highest rates of child marriage are found in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, that means that almost half of all child brides worldwide live in South Asia and 1in 3 are in India. The 10 countries with the highest rates of child marriage are downward: Nigeria, Bangladesh, Chod, Mali, Central African Republic, India, Guinea, Ethiopia , Burkina Faso, Nepal.(https://data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Child-Marriage-Brochure-HR_164.pdf )

Ending child marriage will help break the intergenerational cycle of poverty by allowing girls and women to participate more fully in society. Empowered and educated goals are better able to nourish and care for their children, leading to healthier, smaller families. When girls are allowed to be girls, everybody wins.[:]

[:it]International Romani Day[:en]International Romani Day[:]

[:it]International Romani Day

The International Roma Day, marked on 8 April each year, was proclaimed in 1990 at the Fourth Congress of the International Roma Union, which took place in Warsaw.

The date was chosen in memory of April 8, 1971, when the first international meeting of representatives of the Roma ethnic group took place near London, at which time the foundations of an international Roma organization, called the International Roma Union, starting with 1993 it has the statute of consultative organization beside United Nations.

Stereotypes, racism, and cultural differences have led to centuries of discrimination, persecution, and genocide against Roma people around the world.

The purpose of this day is to draw society’s attention to the problems faced by the Roma, to improve the educational situation and, at the same time, to claim the civil rights of the Roma. According to the official website of the European Parliament, www.europarl.europa.eu, the Roma are the largest ethnic minority in Europe, with 10 000 000 living in Europe, of which 6 000 000 in the countries of the European Union, many of whom are often exposed to various forms of intolerance and even social exclusion.

The indifference regarding Roma developed a lot of criticism, hate speech and violence against individuals, entire communities in different forms of injustice and racism. The International Roma Day aided the world to focus on putting the human rights of Roma, including minority rights, at the center of all State inclusion policies and measures.

UN Special Rapporteur Rita Izsák : “It is high time for Roma to be considered as full partners in society, with much of value to contribute, and not only as beneficiaries or as a problem to be solved,” she said, regretting that according to recent reports, the number of Roma speakers in high-level meetings about Roma inclusion is still limited. Europe cannot stand for exclusion.

The first documentary attestation of Roma communities dates back to 1068, from the Byzantine Empire. There are several theories about the place of origin of the Roma. Some specialists believe that they would come from Egypt, while others are advancing the hypothesis of coming from the northwestern Indian province of Punjab.

The Romani flag is comprised of two longitudinal stripes, the lower green one symbolizing Romani people’s close connection to nature, and the upper blue their connection to heaven, or to the philosophical and spiritual realm. The wheel in the center, which covers both stripes, symbolizes pilgrimage and traveling and is based on the ancient Indian wheel of fate. The wheel originally had 16 spokes and its bright red color corresponds to the first chakra and the element of earth.

The lyrics of the international Romani anthem, “Gelemgelem”, were set to a traditional melody by the Romani musician and politicianJarkoJovanović of Belgrade. (http://www.didaweb.net/mediatori/articolo.php?id_vol=273)

In Palermo the majority of Roma people are coming from Kosovo and Montenegro, in the past years there were around 500 roms, now there are only 127 divided into twenty-six families, they live in wooden or masonry shacks. In the last two years, a dozen of families, on the list in the ranking of the housing emergency, managed to get accommodation. It’s a slow process because there are more than a thousand families asking for asylum.

The mayor has agreed with the prefect the start of a path of guarantees, legal and social, for families for their inclusion in the urban context, he claimed that Roma camps dont have to exist, and for this reason in the sprit of Palermo Charter they are working with the perfecture to involve public instiututions and private structures of the city in process of divestment of the Roma camp, to achieve a dual objective: to develop the area of the Favorita and protect the people living there (http://palermo.repubblica.it/cronaca/2017/03/23/news/il_comune_demolizione_per_il_campo_rom_della_favorita_-161233678/[:en]International Romani Day

The International Roma Day, marked on 8 April each year, was proclaimed in 1990 at the Fourth Congress of the International Roma Union, which took place in Warsaw.

The date was chosen in memory of April 8, 1971, when the first international meeting of representatives of the Roma ethnic group took place near London, at which time the foundations of an international Roma organization, called the International Roma Union, starting with 1993 it has the statute of consultative organization beside United Nations.

Stereotypes, racism, and cultural differences have led to centuries of discrimination, persecution, and genocide against Roma people around the world.

The purpose of this day is to draw society’s attention to the problems faced by the Roma, to improve the educational situation and, at the same time, to claim the civil rights of the Roma. According to the official website of the European Parliament, www.europarl.europa.eu, the Roma are the largest ethnic minority in Europe, with 10 000 000 living in Europe, of which 6 000 000 in the countries of the European Union, many of whom are often exposed to various forms of intolerance and even social exclusion.

The indifference regarding Roma developed a lot of criticism, hate speech and violence against individuals, entire communities in different forms of injustice and racism. The International Roma Day aided the world to focus on putting the human rights of Roma, including minority rights, at the center of all State inclusion policies and measures.

UN Special Rapporteur Rita Izsák : “It is high time for Roma to be considered as full partners in society, with much of value to contribute, and not only as beneficiaries or as a problem to be solved,” she said, regretting that according to recent reports, the number of Roma speakers in high-level meetings about Roma inclusion is still limited. Europe cannot stand for exclusion.

The first documentary attestation of Roma communities dates back to 1068, from the Byzantine Empire. There are several theories about the place of origin of the Roma. Some specialists believe that they would come from Egypt, while others are advancing the hypothesis of coming from the northwestern Indian province of Punjab.

The Romani flag is comprised of two longitudinal stripes, the lower green one symbolizing Romani people’s close connection to nature, and the upper blue their connection to heaven, or to the philosophical and spiritual realm. The wheel in the center, which covers both stripes, symbolizes pilgrimage and traveling and is based on the ancient Indian wheel of fate. The wheel originally had 16 spokes and its bright red color corresponds to the first chakra and the element of earth.

The lyrics of the international Romani anthem, “Gelemgelem”, were set to a traditional melody by the Romani musician and politicianJarkoJovanović of Belgrade. (http://www.didaweb.net/mediatori/articolo.php?id_vol=273)

In Palermo the majority of Roma people are coming from Kosovo and Montenegro, in the past years there were around 500 roms, now there are only 127 divided into twenty-six families, they live in wooden or masonry shacks. In the last two years, a dozen of families, on the list in the ranking of the housing emergency, managed to get accommodation. It’s a slow process because there are more than a thousand families asking for asylum.

The mayor has agreed with the prefect the start of a path of guarantees, legal and social, for families for their inclusion in the urban context, he claimed that Roma camps dont have to exist, and for this reason in the sprit of Palermo Charter they are working with the perfecture to involve public instiututions and private structures of the city in process of divestment of the Roma camp, to achieve a dual objective: to develop the area of the Favorita and protect the people living there (http://palermo.repubblica.it/cronaca/2017/03/23/news/il_comune_demolizione_per_il_campo_rom_della_favorita_-161233678/[:]

[:en]Human (women) trafficking/ Sexual abuse.[:]

[:en]Human trafficking is considered one of the most serious crime in the world. Sexual exploitation, forced labor, domestic work, illegal trade of human organs are some forms of trafficking.

A $32 billion annual industry, modern day trafficking is a type of slavery that involves the transport or trade of people for the purpose of work. According to the U.N. about 2.5 million people around the world are ensnared in the web of human trafficking at any given time.

In a report published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)[1], most victims of human beings traffick for sexual exploitation and forced labor are women and children, from around 115 countries.

Generally they are promised a stable and well-paid job, but most of the time trafficants get their passport, so they are forced to prostitute in either brothels or “NO NAME” clubs. These women live in slavery. It may seem shocking, but that’s a sad reality. The rule is that they become “due” to traffickers, who take over transport and other expenses. In some countries, such as Thailand / Cambodia, boys are traditionally preferred, and this makes many parents sell their daughters to traffickers.

It is a growing market, it is comparable today with drug trafficking or arms. It is a market fueled by men’s fantasies that include sex, according to the principle of domination, so they spend their money at any hour to have any woman they want. Women and girls who become victims of trafficking are very young, being attracted very easily. It appears that traffickers often transfer victims to urban centers before sending them abroad. From here, they sell to pimps or continue to control them through networks.

Estimates of women and children trafficked each year to the sexual market (often by force or abduction) and the forced labor market vary considerably between 700,000 and 4 million. The sale of girls for sexual slavery, a serious violation of their rights and a threat to their health has increased considerably over the past 10 years. Extreme poverty, the inferior status of women and girls, questionable customs controls and the involvement of those who should apply the law to trafficking activities all contribute to the spread of the phenomenon.

For at least 30 years, Nigerian women have been trafficked into Europe for sex work, but numbers have spiked recently. In 2014, the trickle of a few hundred women a year grew to nearly 1,500. The following year, it increased again to 5,600. In 2016, at least 11,009 Nigerian women and girls arrived on Italian shores.

In the past these women used to arrive on planes with visas. Today, they come the “back way”  the smuggling route that has developed across Africa to bring hundreds of thousands of Africans to Europe.

International Organization of Migration estimates that 80 percent of Nigerian females coming to Europe are trafficked, aid workers have no way of telling those seeking opportunity from those forced against their will.[2] In the case they escape, women are situated in a  house run by nuns or an NGO,  that helps women to integrate them into European life by giving trainings oportunity to attend a school to become independent and get a job, but most of them don’t want to denounce their traffickers or madams because of what Nigerians call the “juju oath,” an animist, spiritual contract in which the girl agrees to be brought to Europe, and binds herself to their debt. The ritual is taken extremely seriously and violation is considered justification for murder of a girl or her family.

In Asia and Eastern Europe, 13-year-old girls are trafficked as “wives to order”. In India, it is estimated that two out of five women performing sexual services are under the age of 18. According to regional estimates, between 1 and 2 million men and women are victims of trafficking each year, most of them in Asia. More than 225,000 of them come from south-east Asia and about 150,000 from southern Asia.

Each person has the same basic right to pursue his dreams and hopes, to seek a better life for himself or for the family, to travel or study, to find a better job.

 

[1]United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

[2]International Organization of Migration.[:]

[:en]What Are Human Rights?[:]

[:en]What Are Human Rights?

If I will simply ask, what do you understand by “human rights” could I hear an direct answer or would you need time to find the exact definition? After an interview many people were unable to give a clear response, and in cases they did,the sound of voice felt full of doubts and uncertainty of their explanation in own words and beliefs.

Human rights on a very basic level are the rights you have simply because you’re human. Human rights can generally be defined as those rights that are inert to our nature, without which we cannot live as human beings. That’s the rights that we are born with and are unalienable.

Human rights are applying to absolutely everyone everywhere, certain groups and individuals, they are simply universal rights. That’s thefundamental rights we have and were created to protect us, that allow everyone freely to choose who we want to become or do in our lives.  Recognition of the dignity and equal treatment of the humans is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.

Most of the people know their basic rights as the right to live, to choose the religion, to have a safe place to live, be paid for the jobs they are doing, but there is more other rights that need to be known in order to prevent slavery, intolerance and discrimination.

On 10 December 1948 in Paris, the General Assembly of U.N. adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It is the event that led to the overthrow of the old regime of the absolute monarchy and the establishment of a new political and social order in the French state, with major consequences, not just on it, but on the whole of Europe.

The declaration of Human and Citizen rights is one of the first and most influential acts drafted during the French Revolution. It is a fundamental document in the development of modern democracy, putting its mark on modern constitutional regimes. Influenced by the enlightened ideas and various statements, especially American, is the act that has devoted the concept of fundamental rights and freedoms.

After this significant act, the general Meeting of the Member States does not spare any of the means at their disposal to solemnly publish the text of the Declaration and, in order to do so that it is distribute, displayed, read and commented, in Educational institutions, no matter of the political status of countries or territories.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a landmark document in the history of human rights, elaborated by representatives with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world translated in 500 languages, it contains a preamble and 30 articles. It circumscribes numerous rights as civil, political, economic, cultural and social to which people all over the world are entitled.

“This Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as the common ideal to which all peoples and nations must strive”, so that all persons and all the organs of society attempt, having this permanent statement in mind, that by learning and education to develop respect for these rights and freedoms.

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[:it]What is the European Convention on human rights?[:en]What is the European Convention on human rights?[:]

[:it]What is the European Convention on human rights?

The modern international law of human rights was born at the end of the second world war in which it is estimated that more than 10 million people died, revealed the need to encode international standards for the protection of human rights, as well as the creation of systems to guarantee their respect.

The protection of human rights and freedoms is a powerful means of ensure the continuity of democratic values and guarantee international peace and security. The European Convention on Human Rights was adopted on 4 November 1950 and entered into force on September 3, 1953elaborated by Council of Europe.

Convention and its addition protocols defend more fundamental rights and freedoms that have individuals, individually or various social entities, with the exception of any state structures. The creation of an independent political entity of the States to verify compliance with the Convention and the possibility open to any natural or legal person to refer to the European Court of Human Rights, the key to the success enjoyed by the European model.

Convention is composed of three parts. In Section I, which consists of Articles 2 to 18, the basic rights and freedoms are contained. In Section II from Articles 19 to 51 sets up the Court and its rules of operation. Section III contains various final provisions.

This Convention establishes a supranational control of human rights for the countries of the party. The very complex procedure is organized around two courts:

  1. The European Commission of Human Rights is composed of the same number of jurists as those of the States that have ratified the Convention and from independent persons.
  2. The European Court of Human Rights (CEDO), which consists of the same number of lawyers with the Member States of the Council of Europe, may be seized within three months of the transmission of the report, the Commission any state involved or by individuals complain. The Court’s contentious jurisdiction shall be exercised only against States which have accepted it as compulsory by law. The court gives definitive sentences.

The European Convention of Human Rights is supra Constitutional that means that it has more importance then the national(domestic) Constitution of a member state.

Guido Raimondi proclaimed, “The European system of protection of human rights with its Court would be inconceivable untied from democracy. In fact we have a bond that is not only regional or geographic: a State cannot be party to the European Convention on Human Rights if it is not a member of the Council of Europe; it cannot be a member State of the Council of Europe if it does not respect pluralist democracy, the rule of law and human rights. So a non-democratic State could not participate in the ECHR system: the protection of democracy goes hand in hand with the protection of rights.” Ideas and philosophy often tend to change in the society about human rights and the Court should adapt to the new ideologies in order to provide development and growth in Europe through its laws.[:en]What is the European Convention on human rights?

The modern international law of human rights was born at the end of the second world war in which it is estimated that more than 10 million people died, revealed the need to encode international standards for the protection of human rights, as well as the creation of systems to guarantee their respect.

The protection of human rights and freedoms is a powerful means of ensure the continuity of democratic values and guarantee international peace and security. The European Convention on Human Rights was adopted on 4 November 1950 and entered into force on September 3, 1953elaborated by Council of Europe.

Convention and its addition protocols defend more fundamental rights and freedoms that have individuals, individually or various social entities, with the exception of any state structures. The creation of an independent political entity of the States to verify compliance with the Convention and the possibility open to any natural or legal person to refer to the European Court of Human Rights, the key to the success enjoyed by the European model.

Convention is composed of three parts. In Section I, which consists of Articles 2 to 18, the basic rights and freedoms are contained. In Section II from Articles 19 to 51 sets up the Court and its rules of operation. Section III contains various final provisions.

This Convention establishes a supranational control of human rights for the countries of the party. The very complex procedure is organized around two courts:

  1. The European Commission of Human Rights is composed of the same number of jurists as those of the States that have ratified the Convention and from independent persons.
  2. The European Court of Human Rights (CEDO), which consists of the same number of lawyers with the Member States of the Council of Europe, may be seized within three months of the transmission of the report, the Commission any state involved or by individuals complain. The Court’s contentious jurisdiction shall be exercised only against States which have accepted it as compulsory by law. The court gives definitive sentences.

The European Convention of Human Rights is supra Constitutional that means that it has more importance then the national(domestic) Constitution of a member state.

Guido Raimondi proclaimed, “The European system of protection of human rights with its Court would be inconceivable untied from democracy. In fact we have a bond that is not only regional or geographic: a State cannot be party to the European Convention on Human Rights if it is not a member of the Council of Europe; it cannot be a member State of the Council of Europe if it does not respect pluralist democracy, the rule of law and human rights. So a non-democratic State could not participate in the ECHR system: the protection of democracy goes hand in hand with the protection of rights.” Ideas and philosophy often tend to change in the society about human rights and the Court should adapt to the new ideologies in order to provide development and growth in Europe through its laws.[:]

10 Dicembre 2015, HRYO – Human Rights Youth Organization

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In occasione della Giornata Mondiale dei Diritti Umani, giorno 10 Dicembre 2015, HRYO – Human Rights Youth Organization ha voluto dire la sua, pubblicando un breve video sui propri canali Social.
Lo “Human Rights Day” mira a ricordare la proclamazione, da parte dell’Assemblea Generale delle Nazioni Unite, del primo documento internazionale riguardante i diritti dell’uomo: la Dichiarazione Universale dei Diritti Umani. Ciò rappresentò senz’altro una svolta storica per i rapporti diplomatici tra Nazioni straziate dai due conflitti mondiali.
Tuttavia, dando un’occhiata più approfondita ai singoli articoli che la compongono, ci si accorge dell’enorme divario tra lo spirito e l’obiettivo della Dichiarazione e quella che è, al giorno d’oggi, la realtà dei fatti.
Il video realizzato si muove appunto sul contrasto evidente tra il contenuto del documento e tutti quei fenomeni per cui, ancora oggi, il rispetto di tali diritti non è garantito.
Con questo gesto HRYO non intende porsi contro lo spirito della Dichiarazione o la bontà delle intenzioni nell’istituire una Giornata Mondiale in merito, quanto, semplicemente, ricordare a tutti che la strada da percorrere è ancora lunghissima.
Un vero e definitivo cambiamento potrà essere possibile esclusivamente tramite l’instaurazione di una cultura della tolleranza e del rispetto reciproco, e dovrà necessariamente passare dalle decisioni prese dalle grandi potenze mondiali, le stesse che hanno promosso ed oggi ricordano la Dichiarazione.